TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY Pickler Memorial Library Truman State University

APA Style Guide

Prepared by Pickler Memorial Library Staff from Publication Manual of the APA, 6th edition, 2010 &
APA Style Guide for Electronic References, 2007
Revised 8/09

Articles from Journals | Articles from Magazines | Books | Book Reviews |
Government Documents | Newspaper Articles | Primary Sources | Web Pages | Blog Postings|
Electronic Mailing Lists

Articles from Journals

Article from a Printed Journal

Brown,  E. (1996). The lake of seduction. JTD: Journal of
           Theatre and Drama
, 2, 175-200.

Article from a Printed Journal with Multiple Authors

Jones, G., Hanton S., & Connaughton, D. (2002). What is this thing
             called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport
             performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 205-

Article from an Online Journal

 Evnine, S. J. (2001). The universality of logic: On the connection
          between rationality and logical ability. Mind, 110, 335-367.
          Retrieved from

Full-Text Journal Article from a Database

Holton, W. (1994). The Ohio Indians and the coming of the
         American Revolution in Virginia. The Journal of Southern
         History, 60
, 453-478. Retrieved from        

Articles from Magazines

Article from a Printed Magazine

Gawande, A. (2001, July 9). The man who couldn't stop eating.
           The New Yorker, 77(1), 66-75.

Article from an Online Magazine
Saletan, W. (2001, August 16). The ethicist's new clothes.  Slate.
Retrieved from

Full-Text Magazine Article from a Database

Holton, W. (1994). The Ohio Indians and the coming of the
         American Revolution in Virginia. The Journal of Southern
         History, 60
, 453-478. Retrieved from               


Book with Single Author

Fleming, T. (1997). Liberty!: The American Revolution. New 
          York: Viking.

Book with Two Authors

 Sennett, R., & Cobb, J. (1972). The hidden injuries of class. New
           York: Vintage Books.

Book with Three or More Authors

Schwartz, D., Ryan, S., & Wostbrock, F. (1995). The encyclopedia of
             TV game shows
. New York: Facts on File.

Article within a Book

Cassel, J., &  Zambella, B. (1996). Without a net: Supporting ourselves
             in a tremulous atmosphere.  In T. W. Leonhardt (Ed.), "LOEX"
             of the West: Teaching and learning in a climate of constant
(pp. 75-92). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press Inc.

Article in an Encyclopedia and other Multivolume Works

Lumiansky, R.M. (1998). Chaucer. In The new encyclopaedia
( Vol. 15, pp. 745-748). Chicago: Encyclopaedia

Electronic Book

Norman, R. (1998). The Moral Philosophers. Retrieved from

Book Reviews

Book Reviews   

Salinger, S. V. (2001, November 17). Women of Colonial Times.
           [Review of the book Not all wives: Women of colonial
by K. Wulf].  The Journal of American History
           88, 184-185.

Government Documents

Government Documents

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National
         Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
         (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools
(NIH Publication No 02-2650).  Retrieved from

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Articles

Holden, S. (1998, May 16). Frank Sinatra dies at 82:
          Matchless stylist of pop. The New York Times, pp. A1,

Online Newspapers

Carnes, Mandy.  (2004, April 22). Bulldogs rack up votes. Truman
         State University Index.
  Retrieved from

Full-Text Newspaper Article from an Online Database

Cowell, A. (2001, September 3). Britain faces flurry of illegal migrants 
         using channel tunnel. New York Times.
         Retrieved from

Online Digital Collections

"Websites themselves do not belong in references, only documents, publications, or images available from those websites.  So, for example, if you want to inform readers about the existence of  a website or about the collections available at a website, just give the url in the text (or possibly in a footnote).  If you want to cite a specific document or image available from this website, then follow the Publication Manual guidelines for the specific type of material being cited (see Sections 7.03, 7.09, and 7.10 in the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual).  Klein, Shelley M. Manuscript Editor, APA Journals Online. (2009, August 27). [Letter to Carol Lockhart] Copy in possession of  Carol Lockhart. Email.

Whole Website Eample: "An invaluable collection of important documents can be found at the American Memory website sponsored by the Library of Congress (http://memory.loc/gov/ammem.index.html)." 

One Document from a Website: 

Havens, J., & Dering, S. (1791, November 1). [Letter to Thomas Jefferson]. The Thomas Jefferson Papers Series 1, General
    Correspondence 1651–1827 (Image 2 of 1309). Retrieved from American Memory, Library of Congress website: collId=mtj1&fileName=mtj1page015.db&recNum=

Primary Sources


"Personal communications ma;y be private letters, memos, some electronic communications (e.g. e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), personal interviews, telephone conversations, and the like.  Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list.  Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname or the communicatorm, and provide as exact a date as possible." (p179, Sect. 6.20)

E. Miller (personal communciation, March 3, 1865)

Interview recorded and available in an archive

Smith, M.B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C.A. Kiesler
           [Tape recording].  President's Oral History Project,
          American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.

Motion Picture

Kopelson, A. (Producer), &  Stone, O. (Writer/Director). (1986). Platoon 
[Motion Picture]. United States: Hemdale Film Corporation.

Web Pages

Web Pages

National Park Service. (2003, February  11). Abraham Lincoln
       Birthplace National Historic Site
. Retrieved February 13, 2003,

Blog Posting

Blog Posting

MiddleKid. (2007, January 22).  Re: The unfortunate prerequisites
      and consequences of
partitioning your mind [Web log message}.
      Retrieved from /

Electronic Mailing List

Electronic Mailing List

Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ
       [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from



Encouraging Discovery